mercredi 23 octobre 2019

Les réseaux sociaux, un danger pour la liberté d'expression et pour l'ouverture d'esprit ?


 Le site Atlantico m'a demandé le 19 octobre 2019 demandé de rédiger quelques lignes au sujet de l'impact des réseaux sociaux sur notre liberté d'expression et sur notre ouverture d'esprit.

 De nombreux comptes sur Twitter sont suspendus à la suite de certains propos ou de certaines polémiques. Pensez-vous que les politiques de modération sur les réseaux sociaux empêchent la liberté d'expression ? 

D'une façon générale, la modération des contenus publiés sur le Web est une tâche extrêmement compliquée, qui met à rude épreuve les opérateurs qui en sont chargés et dans laquelle les moteurs de recherche et les réseaux sociaux ont un rôle ambigu. Un travail compliqué ?  Si tout le monde est d'accord sur les grandes règles de la modération qui reposent sur quelques grands principes intangibles  – on ne peut pas, par exemple, laisser libre cours à la haine ou aux propos racistes  -, il est parfois difficile de définir précisément de tels propos. De plus, la société évolue constamment : ce qui était toléré hier pourra être mal vu demain. Sur le plan humain, visionner des vidéos ou des textes nauséabonds est un travail très éprouvant psychologiquement dont les plateformes se déchargent souvent auprès de sous-traitants employant parfois un personnel mal formé et sous-payé. Enfin, le rôle des réseaux sociaux dans ce domaine est ambiguë car il a été mal fixé dès le départ. La plupart des plateformes étant américaines, elle se réfèrent à une loi américaine, la Section 230 du Communications Decency Act, qui remonte à 1996 : les intermédiaires comme les réseaux sociaux ne sont pas responsables des contenus qui y sont publiés par des tiers, ils ne sont pas obligés de les modérer (sauf si des contenus interdits leurs sont signalés), mais s'ils modèrent, ils peuvent le faire comme ils veulent. Je ne pense donc pas que les réseaux sociaux se servent de leurs politiques de modération pour censurer la liberté d'expression. Je pense plutôt que, dans ce domaine, ils font – mal - avec les moyens du bord.


 Les GAFAM sont-ils en train de mettre en place un monde restreint, en employant des méthodes et des politiques autoritaires (alors que leur promesse de départ était basée sur l'ouverture d'esprit, le partage etc.) ?

Je ne parlerai pas de méthodes ou de politiques autoritaires, mais de simples pratiques commerciales. Comme toutes les entreprises soumises aux lois du marché et en particulier au cours de Bourse, les GAFAM  - et à travers Google, Apple, Facebook, Amazon et Microsoft, on désigne toutes les entreprises high-tech du monde – poursuivent un seul objectif : engranger le plus de bénéfice possible ; et éviter d'en perdre. Ainsi, elles ne vont pas prendre le risque de se mettre à dos les responsables politiques qui pourraient leur interdire l'accès à un gigantesque marché comme la Chine. Pour optimiser leurs profits, les réseaux sociaux jouent principalement sur les publicités que nous voyons. Pour pouvoir nous montrer le plus de pubs possibles, ils doivent retenir notre attention afin que nous passions toujours plus de temps sur ces plateformes. Pour retenir notre attention, elles doivent nous proposer des contenus qui nous intéressent. Les algorithmes des Facebook, Twitter et autre Instagram vont donc avoir tendance à nous montrer les publications les plus populaires, les plus sensationnelles ou les plus susceptibles de nous intéresser en fonction de ce que nous avons déjà vu (effet entonnoir). In fine, oui, tout cela restreint, malheureusement, notre ouverture d'esprit.

Article paru le 20 octobre 2019 sur le site Atlantico.fr

Copyright Jacques Henno 2019

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